8 July

Chippewas Cede Territories to Government

Long before the Canadian Government began acquiring land from the Indians in Western Canada, the Indians in Eastern Canada had given up most of their holdings. The Indian treaties for territory west of Thunder Bay began in 1871, but in the East, big deals were being made in the 1820's. For instance, on July 8, 1832, the Chippewas ceded 580,000 acres that are now part of Lambton, Kent, and Middlesex counties in Ontario.

An early land transaction occurred in 1798 when the Chippewas traded St. Joseph's Island for goods worth £1,200, or $6,000 at the old exchange rate of $5 per pound. St. Joseph's Island has 90,000 acres, ranking second in size in Ontario. The deed for the transaction can still be seen in the registrar's office at Sault Ste. Marie. There are nine signatures for the Indians, headed by Okaw, Chippewa Chief, and Wabakangawana, Chippewa Chief of Lake Superior. Okaw's sign was a hand-drawn caribou; the others drew pictures of ducks, cranes, geese, fish, a fox and a wolf. The document concludes by saying that the deal was made after the chiefs heard the terms openly read in their own language. It was fully approved by them.

In return for the island, the Indians received 1,240 blankets, 6,000 yards of cloth, kettles, pipes, tobacco, leather trunks, 25 plain hats, 30 laced hats, and 30 silk handkerchiefs. There were also rifles, ammunition, 60 dozen knives of various types, and scissors. The deal also included one bullock and 50 gallons of rum—for a feast no doubt. Nor were the women forgotten. It is not clear if the plain and laced hats were for them, but there Were 6 dozen ivory combs for the girls who wanted to be fancy and 15 dozen horn combs for the others. There were also 15 dozen looking glasses and 30 pounds of thread. Seventy-five pounds of vermillion probably did paint jobs for either sex.

Toronto columnist Scott Young has figured out that if the Indians had taken $6,000 cash instead of goods, and invested it at 5 per cent, they would have about $30 million by July 8, 1972. Mr. Young calculated the earnings until 1972 to avoid a massive reaction on today's stock markets, and said the story contained a lesson for all, especially the Chippewas!


8 July

-1760    Captain John Byron defeated a French fleet in the Bay of Chaleur.

-1874    The Royal Northwest Mounted Police began their march from Manitoba to Fort Whoop-Up, near Calgary.

-1876    Royal Northwest Mounted Police Inspector Denny held a conference with the Blackfoot Chiefs concerning a proposition from Sitting Bull to join in the war against whites in Canada and the United States.

-1896    The Conservative Government under Sir Charles Tupper resigned. The Liberals under Sir Wilfrid Laurier took over.

-1899    A streetcar strike in London, Ontario, made it necessary to call out troops to quell riots.

-1937    The Imperial Airways flying boat Caledonia arrived at Montreal from Southampton, England. It was the inauguration of an experimental phase of transatlantic Hying.

-1958    President Eisenhower was in Ottawa for defense discussions.